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  Free Reference Books (.pdfs)

US States Year Book 1921
Std Dictionary of Facts Ruoff 1919
Century Book of Facts Ruoff 1906
Manual of Useful Info Thomas 1893
Not Generally Known Timbs 1857
Book of Knowledge Pinckney 1851
Useful Knowledge Pybus 1810
Domestic Encyclopaedia 1802

Dictionary of Musical Terms 1895
Shakespeare Lexicon 1886

Reference Guides 1916
How to Study 1915

  Free Geography Reference Books

Hammond World Atlas 1914
Physiography of the US NGS 1896
Universal Geography 1853
Dictionary of Ancient Geography 1851
Gazetteer of North America 1838
Gazetteer of the US 1830

  Free History Reference Books

American History Atlas 1920
Dictionary of English History 1910
Bibliography of History 1910
Dictionary of US History 1897
The World's History Swinton 1874
Ancient Coins & Measures 1727

  Free Medical Reference Books

Human Anatomy Henry Gray 1918
Practice of Medicine 1916
Dictionary of Medical Science 1903
Pharmaceutical Dictionary 1882

  Free Science & Engineering Ref

Scientific American Reference 1914
Handbook of Chemistry & Physics 1914
Dictionary of Scientific Terms 1879

Dictionary of Statistics 1900
Mathematical Tables Pryde 1900
Mathematical Dictionary 1872

Modern Mechanism Benjamin 1892
Cyclo of App Mech v1 Benjamin 1880
Cyclo of App Mech v2 Benjamin 1881
Mechanical Industries Explained 1881
Knight's Mechanical Dict v1 A-G 1876
Knight's Mechanical Dict v2 G-R 1876
Knight's Mechanical Dict v3 R-Z 1877

Chemical Dictionary Turner 1920

Meteorology Handbook Redway 1921
Reading the Weather Longstreth 1915

Dictionary of Aviation 1911

Dictionary of Architecture 1850

US Trees & Shrubs 1915
Birds of America vol 1 Audubon 1840
Birds of America vol 3 Audubon 1841
Birds of America vol 4 Audubon 1843
Birds of America vol 7 Audubon 1844

Philosophy-Psychology Dic. 1905

  Free Encylopedias

Encyclopaedia Britannica
11th edition 1910-1911
v1 A - Androphagi
v2 Andros - Austria
v3 Austria Lower - Bisectrix
v4 Bisharin - Calgary
v5 Calhoun - Chatelaine
v6 Chatelet - Constantine
v7 Constantine - Demidov
v8 Demijohn - Edward
v9 Edwardes - Evangelical Assoc.
v10 Evangelical Church - Francis Jos.
v11 Franciscans - Gibson
v12 Gichtel - Harmonium
v13 Haromy - Hurstmonceaux
v14 Husband - Italic
v15 Italy - Kyshtym
v16 L - Lord Advocate
v17 Lord Chamberlain - Mecklenbu.
v18 Medal - Mumps
v19 Mun - Oddfellows
v20 Ode - Payment of Members
v21 Payn - Polka
v22 Poll - Reeves
v23 Refectory - Sainte-Beuve
v24 Sainte-Claire - Shuttle
v25 Shuvalov - Subliminal Self
v26 Submarine Mines - Tom-Tom
v27 Tonalite - Vesuvius
v28 Vetch - Zymotic Diseases

1911 Encyc. Britannica text only website

  Free Dictionaries

Webster's New Std Dictionary 1920
Dict. of English Fernald 1918
Webster's Elementary Dic. 1914
New Websterian Dictionary 1912
Lloyd's Encylopedic Dictionary 1896
Webster's Academic Dictionary 1895
Dictionary of English Webster 1892
Webster's High School Dic. 1892
Webster's Common School Dic. 1892
School Dictionary Webster 1892
Century Dictionary of English 1891
Dictionary of English Webster 1863
Walker's Pronouncing Dic. 1859 search returns a large page of combined information from Wikipedia, Britannica Concise Encyclopedia, a dictionary, a thesaurus, and many other sources. Users of the Firefox browser can also access info by clicking on any word on a page after installing the Firefox extension.

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Wikipedia is a multilingual project to create a complete and accurate "open" content free online encyclopedia. Search for articles with this form:

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The Internet Archive besides allowing users to see web pages archived as they were years ago with their "Wayback Machine," also has a powerful multisearch engine that indexes a wide variety of text, video, and audio sources:

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Google Scholar searches many academic journals from a single form:

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e.g., PJ Hayes or McCarthy
published in
e.g., J Biol Chem or Nature
published between and
e.g., 1996

    The TIME Magazine Online Archive in no longer free. You can search for articles, but must subscribe ($3 a month) to read the full text. The archive includes over 321,000 articles and over 4,400 covers from every issue of TIME, beginning with the first issue published: March 3, 1923.

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Google Books has well over 40,000 titles online that are free to read online (and usually free to download in .pdf format), and more on the way.

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Book Reviews & Links Online Book Search:
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Country Search: Library of Congress Country Studies are on-line versions of books previously published by the Federal Research Division under a program sponsored by the U.S. Army. They contain a wealth of information covering 101 nations of the world.

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also see:
LOC .pdfs: Country Profiles
LOC Reference Tools
BBC News: Country Profiles
US State Dept: Country Pages
CIA: CIA World Factbook
UK Foreign Office: Travel Advice by Country
US Census: World Statistics
Embassy World embassy & consulate links

Inflation and Exchange Rates:
Measuring Worth provides calculators for estimating the value of the US dollar from 1790-present and British pound from 1830-present, and provides historic exchange rates of the dollar with 41 foreign currencies and the dollar-pound exchange rate from 1791-present, the price of gold from 1257-present, and more.

The US Bureau of Labor Statistics provides a Consumer Price Index Calculator to compare prices and see inflation rates from 1913-present. You can also track estimated inflation rates all the way back to 1800 ($1 in 1850 was about $23.31 in 2005) at the Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis.
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News Archives Search
Current News Search
Online Books Search
Online Video Search
Photo & Image Search Engines
Map Search & Links
Biography Search & Links
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Science Search
Biomed News & Search
Internet Subject Directories

WordWeb dictionary software allows you to click+keycombo on a word in any application to get a quick definition. WordWeb is freeware, and is said to have no adware or spyware.

Research Buzz reports on the Internet research world, providing updates on search engines, and almost anything a reference librarian might find useful.

The US Department of Justice Freedom of Information Act website explains how to get information with a FOIA request, and has links to other federal agencies FOIA websites. You can search for documents previously released under the Freedom of Information Act at their FBI: FOIA Page and their CIA: FOIA Page.

The Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations NDLTD Theses Library provides searchable archives of thousands of papers from over 60 universities, many with A/V features.

The Why Files, at the U. of Wisconsin, explains phenomena, or as they say, "the science behind the news".

SoYouWanna is a directory of brief beginners lessons at how to do or understand many things.

  Free Word Origin Books

Literary Curiosities Handy-Book 1892
English Etymology Principles 1892
English Etymology Dictionary 1878

  Free Thesauri, Etc.

Thesaurus of English Roget 1916
Dictionary of Similies 1916
Synonyms & Antonyms Fernald 1914
Dictionary of Synonyms Smith 1893

  Free Free Formularies, Etc.

Dr. Chases Recipes 1920
Sci Am Cyclopedia of Formulas 1910
Receipts & Remedies 1908
The Standard Formulary 1904
Wrinkles & Notions 1904
5000 Formulas for Druggists 1893
Cooley's Practical Receipts 1892
Workshop Receipts 1889
Secrets of Wise Men 1889
Techno-Chemical Receipt Book 1887
Moore's Universal Assistant 1882
Druggist's Receipt Book 1878
The Mechanic's Friend 1875
The Artizan's Guide 1873
Household Cyclopædia 1873
Dictionary of Every-Day Wants 1872
Universal Recipe Book 1869
Mackenzie's 10,000 Receipts 1867
How To Do It 1864
Hand Book of Practical Receipts 1860
Receipts for Every-day 1857
Artists & Mechanics Repository 1856
Mackenzie's 5000 Receipts 1853
Farmer's Every-day Book 1850
US Practical Receipt Book 1844
Farmer & Market Gardener 1842
Genuine Receipts 1831
Mysteries of Trade 1825
Universal Receipt Book 1818

  Free Books of Quotations

Familiar Quotations Barlett 1919
Handbook of Quotations Ordway 1913
Dictionary of Quotations Dalbiac 1908
Intl Encyc of Quotations Walsh 1908
Stokes' Familiar Quotations 1906
Dictionary of Quotations Wood 1899
Dict. of Quotations Harbottle 1897
Practical Quotations Hoyt 1896
Treasury of Thought Ballou 1894
Pithy Quotations Morton 1893
Cyclopaedia of Quotations 1882
Prose Quotations 1880
Carleton's Popular Quotations 1878
Dict. of Americanisms Bartlett 1877
Prose Quotations 1876
Ancient & Modern Quotations 1875
Familiar Quotations Gent 1866
Popular Quotations MacDonnell 1818

Classical Quotations Harbottle 1906
Classical Quotations King 1904
Shakespearean Quotations 1851

Quotations from Poets Bohn 1911
Poetical Quotations Allibone 1896
Poetical Quotations Hale 1856
Poetical Quotations Watson 1847

Oriental Quotations 1911
Foreign Phrases & Quotations 1908

  Free Online Only, No Downloads

Personal Computer Bibliog. 2005
Where to Get Vital Records 2007

At Statistical Abstract of the U.S. you can download the US statistical info you want, free, in Adobe .pdf format.

Over 70 US Gov't agencies produce statistics of interest to the public. Federal Statistics Search provides access to statistics and information produced by the government for public use.

The Information Please Almanac online provides an almanac, dictionary, and encyclopedia. serves up easy to use instant words, for when you're feeling redundant. has over 20,000 biographies of historic figures and celebrities.

The Smithsonian Institute's Explore Your Interests is an interface from which you can browse for information alphabetically, or use the search link at the top of the page to search all of the Smithsonian's websites.

  Convert currencies:

Online Conversion
offers calculators to "convert just about anything to anything else". You can convert over 5,000 types of units to other units, including, of course, English to Metric units and vice versa. 1 barrel [US, liquid] = 503.999987 cups [US].

The Digital Book Index claims to index 90,000 electronic books, 66,000 of them free, although you must log in each time you use their site. The also have a directory of free reference books online.

Chicago Manual of Style free trial, then fee
Garbl's Editorial Style Manual
APA Guide for Writing Research Papers
Yale Web Style Guide

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